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[轉貼]英國醫界呼籲吸菸者改吸電子菸

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發表於 2016-6-12 15:15:16 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式

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美國紐約時報:英國醫界(醫學會)呼籲吸菸者改吸電子煙 (Smokers urged to switch to e-cigarettes by British Medical Group /The New York Times) -Apr 27, 2016


英國主要的醫學團體呼籲吸菸者改吸電子煙,這樣的立場和絕大多數美國公共衛生的立場是大相逕庭,英國醫學團體說電子煙對於吸菸者而言,是歷代以來最有希望的戒菸方式。


星期四由皇家醫師學院Royal College of Physicians公佈的一份報告,總結電子煙目前科學的證據,發現電子煙的好處要遠比可能的壞處大得多。這份報告以高亢權威的總結說,至少到目前為止,電子煙能幫助吸菸者要比傷害吸菸者多,而人們過去擔心使用電子煙會讓青少年開始吸傳統菸,但這樣的情況並未發生、也未被證實。這份報告的委員會主席,同時也是英國Nottingham大學菸與酒研究中心的主任John Britton提到,電子煙是過去數十年以來第1次真正能夠幫助人們戒菸的新方法,電子煙有潛力幫助至少一半以上的吸菸者戒菸,這麼大的健康效益是比當今任何醫療治療介入都還要有效。


英國這樣的結論在美國很可能會引起很大的爭議,電子煙的爭議可能會撼動一直以來都相對低調的美國公共衛生界。電子煙只有尼古丁卻沒有焦油和致癌化學物質,部分公共衛生專家認為電子煙是長年來首次能有真正的機會幫助4,000萬美國成癮吸菸者戒菸。但部份專家,包括美國聯邦疾病控制及預防中心(CDC),正專注在電子煙可能產生的危害,舉例來說,電子煙可能會延長吸菸的菸齡、青少年可能先吸電子煙然後再吸傳統菸,以至於電子煙是敲門磚,或是吸電子煙中的煙霧可能會有長期健康的不良影響等。

美國加州舊金山大學醫學系教授Stanton A. Glantz過去對電子煙批評都不遺餘力,這次他提出批評說:「在我看來,那些說電子煙很好的人,正處於懸崖邊,並且即將摔下去。這份電子煙的報告會引導產生一連串的政策,我認為5年之後他們都會後悔,這些人是代表菸商將英國全國變成巨大實驗的白老鼠。


但部份美國公衛專家贊同、支持這份報告,認為任何幫助吸菸者減害的政策都有益處、都能救命,建議吸菸者改吸電子煙或是提供毒癮者乾淨的新針頭,這些都可能會拯救很多的生命。


密西根大學公共衛生學教授前公衛學院院長Kenneth E. Warner指出,英國和美國採取截然相反的立場,美國只光看電子煙可能帶來的「假設性危害」,但目前毫無確認的證據,而英國則強調電子煙「可能帶來的好處」。Kenneth E. Warner補充說:英國人認為,讓我們看電子煙能否幫助現在主流吸菸者,這些吸菸者又恰巧是較窮、教育程度較低的人,先不要全神貫注到青少年身上,去關心他們40年後會不會生病,迄今沒人知道。


吸菸目前仍是美國可避免死因的首位,每年超過48萬人因為吸菸相關的疾病而死亡,過去幾十年,吸菸族群影響整個上中下層全體社會,但現今的英國及美國,吸菸者偏重於較窮的人、教育程度較低或有精神疾病的人。電子煙已擁有價值數十億美元的市場,受吸菸者的歡迎程度快過美國聯邦政府規範的動作。美國的(FDA)食品與藥物管理局到目前都還沒有將最後版本公告,如何將電子煙納入聯邦管制的範圍之內。


美國的疾病控制與預防中心(CDC)發言人指出,該機構除CDC本身報告之外對其他報告不發表評論。發言人重申CDC對電子煙的立場:以戒菸工具而言,到目前還沒有任何明確的科學證據支持電子煙是一種安全有效的戒菸工具。到目前為止的科學證據都指出,絕大多數電子煙的使用者仍持續吸傳統菸。但是本報告引用英國人使用電子煙引此得以戒菸的證據。英國倫敦大學的菸害研究所所長Robert West認為,這份報告提供電子煙能幫助吸菸者戒菸的證據,他分析英國自2009年以來每月家戶調查的數據指出,電子煙的使用者,相較於沒有任何專業協助戒菸或是沒有透過專業協助而自行使用尼古丁貼片的吸菸者,有多出50%的戒菸成功率,他估計英國在2014年內約有2萬名吸菸者因為電子煙而成功戒菸。


但是加州大學醫學系教授Stanton A. Glantz卻引述他最近的研究認為,電子煙會減少人們想要戒菸的意願。英國皇家醫師學會是一個受到尊崇的醫師團體,過去在英國設定許多醫療的規範標準。他們曾在1962年歷史性全球首次報導吸菸的危害,而這也是在美國1964年醫務總署首次報告吸菸會導致癌症之前發表。這個組織上一次針對菸害發表的報告是在2007年,當時電子煙還沒有開始流行,而這次報告的作者也提到,而這份電子煙的報告要試著來評估電子煙的功過。


這份報告累積10年的科學驗證,把對電子煙有利與有害的研究都分別列出。該報告指出,電子煙的危害只有傳統菸的5%。部份美國的專家說這項結論很重要,但常被忽略,常因急著要打擊譴責電子煙而被掩蓋。這份報告很直率地指出,尼古丁的長期危害應該是很微小的。該報告指出,電子煙的興起替廣大的吸菸者提供偌大的契機,同時尼古丁在醫療上的使用是革命性的轉變。隨著電子煙技術的改善更趨安全,電子煙會讓社會期待一個沒有菸也沒有因為菸害產生疾病的世界,變得更接近真實。


轉貼自菸害防制資訊網 來源連結





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發表於 2016-6-13 22:55:52 | 顯示全部樓層

點評

XDDDD  發表於 2016-6-14 19:31

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 樓主| 發表於 2016-6-13 15:07:10 | 顯示全部樓層
RyanYe@FB 發表於 2016-6-13 09:24
那個衛福部的文章被撤了,沒有了...

只要是國際間有關電子菸的正面報導就要被撤掉,虧它還叫做資訊網叻,應該改名「資訊操縱網」,真是不能低估背後的有心人。

乾脆把紐約時報這篇報導的原文也貼上來。

Smokers Urged to Switchto E-Cigarettes by British Medical Group
Taking a stance sharplyat odds with most American public health officials, a major British medicalorganization urged smokers to switch to electronic cigarettes, saying they arethe best hope in generations for people addicted to tobacco cigarettes to quit.
The recommendation, laidout in a report published Thursday by the Royal College of Physicians,summarizes the growing body of science on e-cigarettes and finds that their benefits far outweigh the potential harms. It concludes resoundingly that, at least so far, the devices are helping people more than harming them, and that the worries about them — including that using them will lead young people to eventually start smoking traditional cigarettes — have not come to pass.
“This is the first genuinely new way of helping people stop smoking that has come along in decades,” said John Britton, director of the U.K. Center for Tobacco andAlcohol Studies at the University of Nottingham, who led the committee that produced the report. E-cigarettes, he said, “have the potential to help half or more of all smokers get off cigarettes. That’s a huge health benefit, biggerthan just about any medical intervention.”
That conclusion is likely to be controversial in the United States, where arguments about e-cigarettes have jolted the traditionally low-key public health community.
E-cigarettes deliver nicotine without the harmful tar and chemicals that cause cancer. Some public health experts see e-cigarettes as the first real chance in years for 40 million addicted Americans to quit. But others, including the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,have focused on the potential dangers of e-cigarettes, for example that they could extend smoking habits, that they could be a gateway to traditional cigarettes for children, or that their vapor could to turn out to have long-term health effects.
“These guys, in my view,are going off a cliff,” said Stanton A. Glantz,aprofessor of medicine at the University of California who has been outspoken inhis criticism of e-cigarettes. “They are taking England into a series of policies that five years from now they all will really regret. They are turning England into this giant experiment on behalf of the tobacco industry.”
But some American public health experts applauded the report, saying the emphasis on policies that reduce harm, such as recommending that smokers try e-cigarettes or giving clean needles to drug users, would probably save more lives.
“This is two countries taking pretty much diametrically opposed positions,” said Kenneth E. Warner, aprofessor of public health at the University of Michigan School of PublicHealth. “One is focused exclusively on the hypothetical risks, none of which have been established. The other is focusing on potential benefits.”
He added, “The British are saying, ‘Let’s see how we can help the main smokers today, who by the way are largely poor and less educated, and let’s not focus so much on kids, who may or may not be sickened by this 40 years down the line.’ ”
Smoking is still the largest cause of preventable death in the United States, with more than 480,000 people a year dying of smoking-related illnesses. In past decades, smoking was spread throughout society, but today in Britain and the United States, smokers tend to be poor, less educated, or mentally ill.
E-cigarettes, now a multibillion-dollar market, have gained popularity faster than the federal government has managed to regulate them. The Food and Drug Administration has not yet published final rules that would subject them to federal oversight.
A spokesman for the C.D.C. said the agency would not comment on any report other than its own. He reiterated the C.D.C. position on e-cigarettes: “There is currently noconclusive scientific evidence supporting the use of e-cigarettes as a safe and effective cessation tool at the population level. The science thus far indicates most e-cigarette users continue to smoke conventional cigarettes.”
But the report cites evidence from Britain that e-cigarettes have helped with quitting. Robert West,director of Tobacco Studies at University College London, analyzed monthly household survey data going back to 2009 in England, and concluded that use of an e-cigarette during an attempt to quit was associated with a 50 percent increasein the chances of success, compared with using no aid or using a product such as nicotine patches without any professional counseling. He estimated that around 20,000 smokers in England quit smoking in 2014 because of e-cigarettes.
Professor Glantz cited his recent analysisas evidence that e-cigarettes in fact reduce the chances someone will quitsmoking.
The Royal College of Physicians is a respected doctors’ group that helps set medical standards in Britain. It issued a groundbreaking report on the dangers of smoking in 1962 that was seen as the precursor of the American surgeon general’s report of 1964 that linked smoking with cancer. The organization’s last major report on reducing harm from tobacco use came out in 2007, before e-cigarettes became mainstream, and its authors said the new one was an attempt to evaluate their benefits and harms.
The report walks through a decade of science, listing studies that find in favor of e-cigarettes as well as studies that do not. It asserts that e-cigarettes are only 5 percent as harmful as traditional cigarettes, a conclusion that some American experts say has been lost in the United States in the rush to condemn e-cigarettes. It states bluntly that long-term effects of nicotine are likely to be minimal.
“The emergence of e-cigarettes has generated a massive opportunity for a consumer as well as a health care-led revolution in the way that nicotine is used in society,” the report said. As the technology of e-cigarettes improves, “so the vision of a society that is free from tobacco smoking, and the harm that smoking causes,becomes more realistic.”



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發表於 2016-6-12 20:10:14 | 顯示全部樓層
感謝大大分享.......

記者快來抄......

(我想目前沒有新聞台敢報導...

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發表於 2016-6-12 15:31:41 | 顯示全部樓層
支持!!電子菸才是健康的!!

點評

就目前來說,我確實覺得電子菸,無論對使用者,或不使用者,甚或整個大環境來說,都是"健康的",^^。  發表於 2016-6-12 17:31
仔細的思考與評估所有可能產生的問題點,之後加以分析與評估,等到結論出現,用這樣的結論去做決策,會比較洽當,也比較站得住腳  發表於 2016-6-12 17:28
個人看法,如果要用健康形容電子菸,那麼應該用較寬廣的視野,應該要把使用與不使用的人的狀況都考慮進去,還有環境,也就是地球  發表於 2016-6-12 17:27
支持+1  發表於 2016-6-12 16:48
支持!!電子菸才是健康的!!  發表於 2016-6-12 16:40

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發表於 2016-6-12 17:00:30 | 顯示全部樓層
那我就大尻特尻了...

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發表於 2016-6-12 17:03:50 | 顯示全部樓層
感謝版大分享,^^。
各位版友,珍重再見!!!!!!!
感謝版大這麼長時間的辛勞,謝謝,^^。
好可惜啊~~~~~~Q_Q。

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發表於 2016-6-12 19:38:51 | 顯示全部樓層
自從抽了電子煙....每天都有女生跟我搭訕
新手入坑

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發表於 2016-6-13 01:13:26 | 顯示全部樓層
衛福部忽視說再多也沒用 .....

衛福部說不可以宣傳電子菸有戒菸療效 ....

想要戒菸者還是去戒菸門診吧因為抽電子煙不會戒煙 ....

因為一旦入坑你就會因為愛 ..... 去愛上它的口感

這坑至於有多深?不要問因為很恐怖 .......

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發表於 2016-6-13 01:31:57 | 顯示全部樓層
要開始稅收了........

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發表於 2016-6-13 09:24:21 | 顯示全部樓層
那個衛福部的文章被撤了,沒有了...

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..... 真的是鬼島  發表於 2016-6-13 11:55
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